Field Services Portfolio

Instrumentation & Monitoring on Selected Foundations for Wind Turbines at Mountain Air Wind Farm

Elmore County, Idaho
Aubrey Silvey Enterprises, Inc.
2017 to 2018
Lymon C. Reese & Associates (LCR&A) was contracted by Aubrey Silvey Enterprises, Inc. (Silvey) to conduct field instrumentation, monitoring and reporting on selected turbine foundations. Sensors for the new monitoring program include high resolution biaxial tiltmeters, resistance-type strain gauges, and electronic-displacement transducers. The objectives of this instrumentation and monitoring program are basically to collect the field performance data which were transmitted in real time through wireless network system and to convert those measurements to engineering units with basic parameters that can be evaluated by geotechnical and structural engineers.

Ambient Vibration Monitoring of Manchester Wharf 2, Port of Houston

Manchester Wharves 2 & 3, Port of Houston, Texas
Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. & Port of Houston Authority
2015 to 2016

The Port of Houston had plans to deepen the existing ship channel to accommodate larger vessels. The new channel depths and the accompanying deepening of the existing berths at the Manchester 2 & 3 Wharfs may undermine their pile foundations. LCR&A performed analytical studies of the existing and proposed wharf conditions to assess the likelihood of a foundation failure after the dredging. The existing foundation system in Manchester 2 Wharf consisted of about 2000 original timber piles of various penetrations mostly installed in 1921, but some new ones replaced and/or reinforced during a major structural strengthening in 1948. The upper structural system had a combination of the original pile cap and a new reinforced concrete system that was built during the major work of 1948.

As a practical solution, LCR&A recommended, designed and implemented a series of sensors and monitoring system to assess the continuity of the structure and the degree of fixity of the piles to the superstructure. The idea was to compare measurements with refinements of a finite element analysis (FEA) model to calculate and match the natural vibration modes for the Manchester 2 Wharf. The goal of the ambient vibration monitoring study was to determine the first four resonant frequencies of the Wharf structure. The instrumentation consisted of five horizontal geophones, designed for the estimated ambient response of the structure and placed in locations that will help to determine the first four modes of vibrations. All measurements were recorded automatically and later retrieved from the site. Various types of analytical tools were developed and used by LCR&A to interpret the resonant frequencies in the time domain under various conditions and positions of the sensors.

Remote Monitoring of Selected Floodwalls in St Bernard Parish near New Orleans

St Bernard Parish, Louisiana
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) – New Orleans District
2014 to 2016
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, started a project in November of 2014 labeled “Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity, New Orleans, Louisiana; St. Bernard Parish Floodwalls Instrumentation; St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana.” The objective of this project was to design and establish a monitoring system on selected floodwall locations along the 20 miles of contract reaches in St Bernard Parish, Louisiana. In general, the monitoring system was designed to measure three physical conditions at these selected locations: i) corrosion rates, ii) changes in strain/stress on selected deep foundations and iii) settlement at various elevations. Services from LCR&A were related to development, instrumentation selection, supply and placement, initial monitoring, automated remote monitoring and reporting. As part of the contract, LCR&A also developed a software system for the display of interpreted measurements arising from the strain sensors in piles and from the CMDs. Thirteen total locations were instrumented with five of them designed for automated remote measurements. The system was under the operation of LCR&A for a full year after installation and delivered to the client for subsequent monitoring for future years of operation. LCR&A also developed dedicated monitoring software to automate reading of outputs from the monitoring stations and to display (in charts and plots) appropriate information that was of specific interest to the client.
Lymon C. Reese and Associates, Inc. (LCRA) in Austin, Texas, was retained by Boyer, Inc. (BOYER) to conduct and report dynamic integrity tests on auger cast-in-place piles (augercast piles) that were designed and installed by BOYER as demonstration piles and also as foundations for an expansion of their building in the northwest side of Houston, Texas. Low strain impact integrity testing of the four augercast piles follows the ASTM D5882-07 standard. Two methods are described in the ASTM D5882-07 standard. These two methods are: (1) Pulse Echo Method (PEM) and (2) Transit Response Method (TRM). In the pulse echo method, the pile top motion is measured as a function of time. The time domain record is then evaluated for the pile integrity. In the transit response method, the pile head motion and force (measured with an instrumented hammer) are measured as a function of time. The data are evaluated in the frequency domain. Both PEM and TRM methods were utilized in this service.
Lymon C. Reese and Associates, Inc. (LCRA) in Austin, Texas, was retained by Boyer, Inc. (BOYER) to conduct and report static load tests on auger cast-in-place piles (augercast piles) that were designed and installed by BOYER as part of the foundation for the East Canal Transfer Pump Station from the San Jacinto River Authority, in the site off Haney Road, just north of the intersection between East Wallisville Rd and Haney Road, Highlands, Harris County, Texas. Three test piles were tested at the site in axial compression loads on May 19-20, 2015. The axial responses under tension for the reaction piles were also measured during the same tests. The final report includes details of the test and reaction piles, references to soils at the site, test procedures, measurement data and test results.
Lymon C. Reese and Associates, Inc. (LCRA) was retained by WW Foundation Drilling, Ltd. to conduct sonic-echo tests (also known as pile integrity tests) on 30 inches OD drilled shafts for a new bridge overpass on W. Airfield Dr. north of intersection with E. Mid Cities Blvd., near the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport. The tested shafts were installed in a row at the North abutment of a bridge bent. The shaft which experienced construction issues (concrete drop more than expected after pulling out of the casing) is located at the East most edge of the bridge bent. The final report includes details of the test procedures, measurement data and test results.

Long-Term Performance of Drilled Shaft Retaining Walls, TxDOT Research Project

Manor, Texas
TxDOT/University of Texas at Austin, Center for Transportation Research
2010 to 2012
The general influence of earth pressure from expansive clay behind a retaining wall can be predicted but information that allows detailed computations is absent. The performance of a study where measurements were made that would allow the earth pressure to be evaluated constitutes a contribution to the technical literature and would lead to improved designs. The wall consists of 25 drilled shafts embedded to depths from 18 to 35 feet below ground surface. The shafts have a diameter of 24 inches and a center to center spacing of 30 inches. LCR&A joined UT Austin for this research project sponsored by TxDOT. LCR&A developed the instrumentation system and monitoring program for evaluating the behavior of the drilled-shaft retaining wall for a period of two years. Various types of sensors were installed on a total of 3 instrumented drilled shafts installed in 2010. The sensors installed for the long-term monitoring program include optical strain gauges, inclinometers, electronic displacement gauges, piezometers and thermocouples. The wall was instrumented with Optical Strain Gauges, which are the state-of-the-art in measuring strains in drilled shafts, particularly over a long-time duration. These optical strain gauges are not susceptible to zero drift in electronics, to moisture and to changes in temperature, making them far superior to conventional gauges that measure electrical resistance. Inclinometers were used to measure the deflected shape of the shaft versus time. We also continuously monitored the moisture content of the soil behind the wall at different depths below the ground surface. The objective of this project is to monitor a drilled shaft retaining wall in an expansive clay soil over a period of several years. Both short-term and long-term design guidelines were developed based on this research study, along with comparison data from the field monitored performance of the instrumented full-scale drilled-shaft wall.

NDT on Drilled Shafts for the Interstate Highway 49 Extension

Caddo Parish, Louisiana
ATS Drilling, LLP (Louisiana Department of Transportation)
March 2011 to present
Cross-hole sonic logging tests are being performed by engineers from LCR&A on 24-in, 36-in, 54-in and 66-in drilled shafts for the extension of InterState Highway IH-49 north of Shreveport, Louisiana. Shaft lengths vary between 30 ft and 65 ft.Loading Tests on Piles for Supporting FRV AE Solar PanelsProject Location: Webberville, TexasClient: Renewable Energy Systems (RES)Dates: January 2011 Lymon C. Reese and Associates, Inc. (LCR&A) was asked by Renewable Energy Systems (RES) to perform 9 tensile-load tests and 3 lateral-load tests on 4-inch OD pipe piles for the FRV AE Solar panels in Webberville, Texas. Three test locations at the 300-acre site were selected and four test piles were installed at each location. In general, the test procedures described in specification D-3689 of American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) and the optional “Quick Load Test Method” was used for the tension tests. Lateral load testing generally followed the specifications of ASTM D-3966. Services Provided: 1. Prepare testing procedures and equipments. 2. Perform 9 tension tests based on ASTM D-3689. 3. Perform 3 lateral-loading tests based on ASTM D-3966. 4. Write engineering report for testing procedures and results.Monitoring the Performance of Cofferdam for U.S. Army Corps of EngineersProject Location: New Orleans, LouisianaClient: U.S. Army Corps of EngineersDates: 2011Lymon C. Reese and Associates, Inc. (LCR&A) was asked by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to install sensors for monitoring the behavior of a cofferdam constructed in New Orleans for flood control.Services Provided:1. Provided a scheme and drawings for the monitoring program.2. Installed monitoring sensors and software systems.3. Data reduction and monitoring report.Pile Loading Tests for US Army Corps of EngineersProject Location: New Orleans, LouisianaClient: U.S. Army Corps of EngineersDates: March 2010Lymon C. Reese and Associates, Inc. (LCR&A) was asked by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to conducted lateral-loading tests on two 54-in OD pipe piles in New Orleans for cofferdam design.Services Provided:1. Designed a scheme and drawings for loading tests.2. Installed monitoring sensors and test setup.3. Data reduction and testing report.
Lymon C. Reese and Associates, Inc. (LCR&A) was asked by SunPower Corporation to evaluate helical-pile foundation system for supporting ground-mounted solar tracking system in Alamosa, Colorado based on the full-scale loading tests. Helical piles are considered to have advantages for supporting ground-mounted trackers, which rotate along a north-south axis and follow the sun on a daily basis. The loads generated by the wind and tracker movement are light and small-size helical piles can be used to support the system. In general, the variation of soil properties and soil strata near the ground surface is more random and less uniform. Good engineering guidelines including soil investigation, pile-capacity evaluation, field installation, and field testing are needed for the project.Services Provided:1. Standardize methods for conducting soil investigation and soil tests.2. Develop procedures for engineering analysis and design.3. Recommend procedures for field testing under uplift loads and lateral loads.4. Prepare specifications for pile installation.Remote Monitoring of WCC Cofferdam for GIWW Hurricane Protection Project, New Orleans, LAProject Location: Plaquemines and Jefferson Parishes, near Belle Chasse, LouisianaClient: FFEV Joint Venture (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers)Dates: November 2009 to February 2011Provided engineering services for the design, performance, installation and interpretation of six monitoring stations with internally instrumented piles. The instrumented piles were part of the retaining structures for the large cofferdam at the West Closure Complex (WCC), in the Plaquemines and Jefferson Parishes, State of Louisiana.LCR&A provided preliminary engineering, installation of sensors, quarterly maintenance of monitoring stations, data reduction, interpretation and real-time presentation of evaluated engineered units on secured internet site, along with warning methods when measurements would exceed certain thresholds. Installed instrumentation consisted of MEMSbased inclinometers, electrical-resistance strain gauges and piezometers all measured on self-powered stations with wireless transmissions to internet servers.The temporary cofferdam was made of PZC-18 sheet piles of 105-ft lengths installed between "A" frames made of 54-inch OD vertical king piles fixed with deep connecting beams to 54-inch batter piles. All piles were approximately 140-ft in total length vibrated into place.

Instrumented Lateral Load Tests of 54-inch Driven Piles, WCC Project, New Orleans, LA

Plaquemines and Jefferson Parishes, near Belle Chasse, Louisiana
FFEV Joint Venture (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers)
July 2009 to April 2010
LCR&A provided engineering services for the design, performance and interpretation of lateral load tests on internally instrumented piles. The test piles and loading were similar to those used in retaining structures for the large cofferdam at the West Closure Complex (WCC), in the Plaquemines and Jefferson Parishes, State of Louisiana.Engineering services consisted of preliminary engineering, pile instrumentation, conduction of the actual test, data reduction, data interpretation and computation of field-derived p-y curves.The top 60 feet of soil at the test site were mostly soft clays underlaying by stiff clays. The test piles consisted of 54-in OD, spiral welded steel pipes with 7/8-in wall thickness and 140-ft in length. Lateral loading was applied at EL+6.00 (in feet, NAVD88) and ground surface on the test piles was at EL-8.00 (ft). Maximum lateral loading was about 340 kips and maximum pile deflection at load point was about 20 inches.The derived p-y curves indicated that the field p-y curves differ significantly from the existing p-y criteria for soft clays in terms of deformation characteristics. The stiffer response from the field test implies that the deflection of the piles can be less than those predicted by using the existing p-y criteria for soft clay. A practical recommendation was made for modifications to the theoretical shape of the p-y curves for soft clay and large-diameter piles.

Instrumented Lateral Load Tests of 54-inch Driven Piles, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Surge Protection Project

Orleans & St Bernard Parishes, Louisiana
Eustis Engineering Services (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers)
April 2009 to July 2009
LCR&A provided engineering services for the preliminary engineering, pile instrumentation and data reduction and interpretation. The test pile was a prestressed-concrete spun pile of 66-in OD, 6-in wall with 32 - 1/2-in prestressing strands. The test pile was 88 ft long, penetrating approximately 70 feet below mudline, with pile top elevation of approximately 11 feet (water depth estimated to be 7 ft at the test site). The test pile was internally instrumentated with 5 pairs of strain gages approximately placed at depths of 5 different soil layers. Site-specific, soil-response (p-y) curves were provided for the various layers at the site based on interpreted data from the lateral pile test.
Developed an instrumentation system and monitoring program for the behavior of P&H Pier Foundations at the Snyder Wind Farm in Texas. Various types of sensors (including electronic displacement gauges, tilt meters, accelerometers, velocity transducers and resistance-type strain gauges) were installed on a total of 5 nominated turbine foundations during December 2008 and May 2009. Measurements from each of the electronic instruments are recorded automatically in the field and periodically transmitted to a server on the web performing data reduction and presentation through a wireless network system. The interpreted measurements are easily available on a secured internet server so LCR&A engineers and clients can make observations of the automatically-collected data.

Services Provided:

1. Design, evaluation and update of the performance of the instrumentation system;
2. Collection and interpretation of field measurements,
3. Provision of quarterly reporting related to the measured performance of the foundations,
4. Provision of field inspections and recommendations.

NDT on Drilled Shafts for the Bayport Container Terminal Expansion, Port of Houston

Houston, Texas
ATS Drilling, LLP
September 2008 to February 2009
Cross-hole sonic logging tests were performed by engineers from LCR&A on 36-in and 48-in drilled shafts for the expansion of the Bayport Container Terminal in the Port of Houston. Shaft lengths varied between 128 ft and 161 ft. Further non-destructive testing and repair methods were prepared for shafts that were found with anomalies in concreting.

Instrumented Load Tests on 36-in Drilled Shaft at the Sandy Creek Energy Station

Riesel, Texas
WW Foundation Drilling
October 2007 to November 2007
A conventional static load test with compression loads was performed on one 36-in shaft with 55-ft penetration. The drilled shaft was instrumented internally with multiple strain bars at 4 different depths and load transfers were measured in three soil layers. A maximum load of 600 Tons (twice the design capacity) was imposed on the test pile at the point of geotechnical failure. LCR&A performed all preliminary engineering, testing operations, test interpretations and final reporting. Axial load distribution curves were prepared for the three predominant soil layers at the site (stiff clay, very stiff clay and hard clay-shale).

Instrumented Load Tests on 36-in Drilled Shaft at the JK Spruce Unit 2 Power Plant

San Antonio, Texas
McKinney Drilling, Inc.
November 2006
A conventional static load test with compression loads was performed on one 36-in (91 cm) shaft with 60-ft (18.3 m) penetration. The drilled shaft was instrumented internally with multiple strain bars at 5 different depths and load transfers were measured in four soil layers. A maximum load of 900 Tons was imposed on the test pile without reaching failure. However, the results from the pile-test program indicated that considerable savings in pile penetration were possible at the site. LCR&A performed all preliminary engineering, testing operations and final reporting.

Instrumented Load Tests on 600-mm Drilled Shaft at the Sunway Construction Site of The Ministry of Legal Affairs Building

Port of Spain, Trinidad & Tobago, West Indies
Sunway Construction Caribbean, Ltd.
January to April 2006
In addition to the bid requirements for standard proof tests, the contractor on this project decided to invest in more extensive internal sensors and in contracting the consulting services from LCR&A. The objective of the instrumented load tests was to determine the load-transfer characteristics of the soils at the site under compressive loads and for the specific drilled shafts that were being installed by the contractor at this site.The 600-mm test shaft with 20-m length was loaded to 325% of the design load (400 Tonnes) at the onset of plunging failure. Load-transfer curves of side resistance (t-z curves) for the four soil layers at the site were recommended along with a curve for load-transfer in end bearing (q-w curve) for the dense layer of gravelly sand found at the tip of the test shaft.

Callipering of 5-ft Test Shaft at The Marquis Tower Project

101 Biscayne Blvd., Miami, Florida
Treviicos Corporation
September 2005
Treviicos Corporation (Trevi) contracted the services of Lymon C. Reese & Associates (LCR&A) to caliper one drilled shaft that is part of testing operations for the foundation at the subject project. Callipering is defined as the performance of several measurements of the variations of the diameter of a drilled hole with respect to depth.A surface casing of nominal 62-inch inside diameter was used on the top section of the test shaft. The test shaft had a nominal diameter of 5 ft with a total penetration of 145 feet from the top of the surface casing. Caliper measurements were performed by LCR&A within 30 minutes from the time of access to the drilled excavation. The client and site inspectors had immediate access to the visualized measurements and a full report was delivered by LCR&A five days after testing.

Callipering of 5-ft Test Shaft at the IH-40 Interchange near Coors Rd.

New Mexico
Twin Mountain PTG - ATS Drilling L.P.
March 2005
Twin Mountain PTG (TM) contracted the services of Lymon C. Reese & Associates (LCR&A) to caliper one drilled shaft that is part of testing operations for the foundation at the subject project.Field operations were coordinated by TM and LCR&A in conjunction with the crew from the foundation subcontractor, ATS Drilling L.P. (ATS). Caliper measurements of the test shaft were performed on March 4, 2005. A surface casing of approximately 61-inch inside diameter was used on the top section of the test shaft. The test shaft had a nominal diameter of 5 ft with a total penetration of 74.5 feet from the top of the surface casing.

Callipering of 6-ft Test Shaft at the Otay River Bridge on the SR-125 South Toll-Road Project

SR-125 South Crossing the Otay River, San Diego, California
Otay River Constructors (ORC)
September 2004 to December 2004
Otay River Constructors (ORC) contracted the services of Lymon C. Reese & Associates (LCR&A) to caliper one test shaft that was part of testing operations for the foundation design at the subject project.Field operations were coordinated by ORC and LCR&A in conjunction with the crew from the foundation subcontractor, Anderson Drilling (Anderson). A surface casing was used on the top section of the test shaft, the steel casing had nominal diameter of 9 ft and soil was removed inside the casing to a depth of 10 ft from the top surface of the casing. The nominal diameter of the test shaft was 72 inches with a total penetration of 109 feet from the top of the surface casing.

CSL Tests on IH-10 / Exit 162

IH-10 @ Exit 162 Overpass Project, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
PSI Inc.; Louisiana Department of Transportation
August 2004 to September 2004
Six drilled shafts of 7-ft (2.1 m) diameter were required for the construction of a highway bridge on Interstate Highway 10 at Exit 162, in the city of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The inspector for this project, PSI, Inc., requested the services of Lymon C. Reese and Associates, Inc. (LCR&A) to perform crosshole sonic logging (CSL) tests for evaluations of the quality of concrete in the demonstration and six production shafts.

CSL Tests on IH-10 / LA-27 Overpass

IH-10 & LA-27 Overpass Project, Sulphur, Louisiana
WW Foundation Drilling, Ltd.; Louisiana Department of Transportation
April 2003 to July 2004
Several drilled shafts of various diameters were designed for a highway bridge replacement on Interstate Highway 10 overpassing LA-27, near the city of Sulphur, Louisiana. The drilled-shaft subcontractor for this project, WW Foundation Drilling, Ltd., requested the services of Lymon C. Reese and Associates, Inc. (LCR&A) to perform crosshole sonic logging (CSL) tests for evaluations of the quality of concrete in the test, demonstration, and production shafts.Several reports were submitted with interpretations from CSL test performed on drilled shafts of 2400 and 1800 mm in outside diameter. In some shafts, LCR&A also performed singlehole sonic logging (SSL) tests as additional check for the quality of concrete on questionable regions.

Instrumentation Supplies & Services at 4th Street Off Ramp

4th Street Off Ramp Widening Project, San Francisco, California
R&L Brosamer; CALTRANS – Foundation Testing Division
December 2003 to May 2004
Approximately 50 strain bars were built, calibrated and delivered by LCR&A to the client for this test project in the San Francisco end of the Baybridge connecting to Oakland. The strain bars were based on electrical -resistance strain gages connected to jacketed cables and protected from moisture.The project investigated load transfers at different depths of GeoJet (patented soil-cement piles) units built by Condon Johnson & Associates. The complete testing program and evaluation of results was conducted by the Foundation Testing Division of CALTRANS.

Design and Performance of Axial Compressive Static Load Tests on Steel Pipe Piles for Container Terminal Project

Colón, Republic of Panama
Dillon Construction, Inc. (DCI)
December 2003 to April 2004
Dillon Construction, Inc. (DCI) has been engaged as General Contractor for the Colón Container Terminal – Phase II construction project. As part of bid documents, DCI wasrequired to perform three load tests on selected quay piles.Lymon C. Reese & Associates (LCR&A) has been contacted by DCI to prepare the instrumentation system, testing setup and procedures, data reduction, and data interpretation and reporting for the axial compressive load tests. LCR&A provided an initial document containing detailed descriptions related to the design and construction of the test setup, instrumentation and testing procedures. Other documents from LCR&A presented detailed description related to the performance, monitoring and reporting of the three pile tests.The tests followed general guidelines from ASTM D-1143 using the standard loading method but with some modifications specified by LCR&A. Prevention of load transfers in undredged material was made with oversized temporary casing set with a tip on the established dredge line. A weighted platform was used to provide the reaction against the axial loading on the test pile.The soil at the site, after placement of a fill of sand, consisted of an upper layer of sand with a thickness of 23.6 ft (7.2 m), a layer of soft Atlantic Muck (soft clay) with a thickness of 34.8 ft (10.6 m), and a stratum of Gatún rock.The first two tests were performed on pipe piles with outside diameter of 27.6 in. (700 mm), wall thickness of 0.5 in. (12 mm), and Gr. 50 steel with a design load of 463 kips (210 tonnes). A maximum load of 927 kips (421 tonnes), approximately equal to twice the design load, were applied on both test piles.The third test was performed on a pipe pile with outside diameter of 23.6 in. (600 mm), wall thickness of 0.5 in. (12 mm), and Gr. 50 steel with a design load of 309 kips (140 tonnes). A maximum load of 623 kips (283 tonnes), approximately equal to twice the design load, was applied on the third test pile.

Instrumented Tests of Soil-Cement Columns Under Static Compressive Loadings

Trinidad Atlantic LNG, Point Fortin, Trinidad & Tobago
Raito, Inc.
May 2003 to October 2003
As part of the construction of the Train 4 Trinidad LNG facilities at Point Fortin, Trinidad, Raito, Inc., under subcontract with Bechtel, has performed an extensive ground improvement program involving deep soil-cement mixing referred to as the Deep Mixing Method (DMM). The latest ground improvement program was designed to support the facilities for Train 4. The major portion of the ground improvement work is intended to improve the characteristics of the soft and liquefiable soils present at the Trinidad LNG site, to safely support the superstructure loads and to mitigate the risk of liquefaction. Additional DMM treatment was performed to create lateral spreading barriers around LNG Tank Number 4, and around the pipe racks that connect Tank No. 4 to the Train 4 Facilities. The DMM treatment consists of a series of interconnected soil-cement columns generally arranged in a cellular pattern.Raito conducted an extensive program of testing to verify that the DMM treatment met the project specifications. One of the requirements of the quality control program was to perform full scale load tests on completed DMM. The load test program involved testing a group of four DMM panels arranged in the shape of the cross. One important issue regarding the performance of the DMM was the distribution of the applied loads with depth. The previous tests could not provide information to evaluate the distribution of load with depth. Furthermore, because the previous tests had been performed on isolated elements, there was a question as to how the DMM would perform within the cellular system that is being used for the DMM treatment. To further evaluate the distribution of load with depth, Bechtel and Raito decided to perform an instrumented load test on a group of elements that were part of the production work.At the request of Raito, Inc., Lymon C. Reese and Associates (LCR&A), in association with Arup, prepared an instrumentation and load testing plan, to investigate the performance of the DMM under a specified load equal to twice the design load. The principal objective of the instrumentation was to provide information regarding the distribution of loads with depth. A total of 56 electrical strain bars, manufactured by LCR&A, were installed in each of 8 test columns at various depths and grouted in place. The test was performed successfully with sufficient information to evaluate the distribution of loads along each element immediately below and adjacent to the loaded area.

Sonic-Wave Tests of Existing Foundations of Two 138-kV Transmission Towers

Holly Street Power Plant & Pleasant Valley Rd, Austin, Texas
Duke Engineering & Services - Austin Energy, Austin, Texas
January 2002 to May 2002
Two transmission towers for 138-kV lines help to deliver energy from the Holly Street Power Plant across Town Lake in the City of Austin. These towers were evaluated for an increased number of transmission lines thus requiring a review of their structural integrity and foundation response.These towers were built in the late 1950’s and their foundation consisted of large concrete caps on top of irregular combinations of straight and raked steel piles made of H sections. The penetration of those piles was not clear from the original plans and a site investigation with nondestructive sonic methods was performed by LCR&A. The tests were based on the use of sonic waves to investigate the length of the existing piles under the concrete caps. Dynamic loads were generated with small blows of hammer impacts on the pile cap and electronic transducers of high sensitivities recorded the signals. Pile lengths were computed based on traveling time and speed of compressive waves on each test pile.

Static Axial, Caliper, and CSL Tests of Long Drilled Shafts in the Port of Houston

Houston, Texas
Geotest Engineering, Houston, Texas
July 2001 to January 2002
A large number of drilled shafts were required for the final design of a new container terminal within the Port of Houston. Designers of the substructure determined the needs to perform fully-instrumented load tests on three test shafts to evaluate possible reductions of pile penetrations or total number of shafts. LCR&A designed and performed the complete testing program while the client organized construction and interpreted test results.Innovative caliper tests were made with a special equipment provided by LCR&A to determine the as-built size of the drilled holes for each test shafts. The shaft caliper was custom built for the project and had monitoring electronics and custom software that provided live readings and graphing of the test hole. A full report was provided to the client within a few days after testing.Cross-hole sonic logging was made by LCR&A on each finished test shaft within a few days from concreting. A full report was delivered within a few days after testing.Each test shaft was carefully instrumented with redundant sensors. Instrumentation was mainly composed of electric strain bars custom made and installed by LCR&A for this project. Some level of redundancy was provided by sets of optical strain bars and vibrating wire sensors that were also embedded in concrete at some of the same levels as the electrical strain bars. Loading was also monitored and centralized with special hemispherical steel plates, maximum loading of 1150 Tons were reached on 27-feet spans between reaction piles.The test shafts were all of 36-inch diameters and lengths varying from 70 to 140 feet. The reaction shafts used in this test project, with 150 feet of penetration, were among the longest drilled shafts in the State of Texas.

Pseudo-Static Axial Tests of Drilled Shafts in U.C. Berkeley Campus, California

Berkeley, California
Rutherford & Chekene, Oakland, California
August 2001 to November 2001
Tests were made on six drilled shafts of 24 and 30 inch diameter with penetrations from 19 to 30 feet, placed at two sites near opposite ends of an existing parking lot within the general campus of the University of California at Berkeley. These test piles were designed to help in the evaluation of existing and future foundation for neighboring housing and parking projects. Two types of pile tests were performed, the standard axial and tension compressive loadings following ASTM D-1143 and D-3689, and a new pseudo-static test method performed with a machine known as Pile Load Tester (PLT). The PLT was manufactured by Fundex in Belgium and by American Piledriving, Inc. in Pleasanton, California.PLT tests were quickly and economically carried out by several drops of a mass of 55,000 lbs to the top of the test shafts. Heavy coiled springs attached to the bottom of the dropping mass softened each impact time and spread the transmitted energy over a period of time.A new type of optical strain bars were used for the internal instrumentation of the test shafts. Readings during the pseudo-static tests were taken with sophisticated data-acquisition cards running at a scanning frequency of 1,000 Hz. Optical signals were generated by an external signal conditioner. Backup instrumentation with electrical strain bars were also used for all measurements. Results helped to develop site-specific load-transfer curves that were later used in the design phase of the new projects.

Axial and Lateral Tests of Driven Piles for Machine Foundation

Plaquemine, Louisiana
URS Corporation, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
February 2001 to March 2001
Driven piles of 14-in. O.D. with 0.188-in. wall thickness and 59-ft penetration were designed at the site for a new generator. The subsoil was mainly formed with soft layers of clay with shear strength in the order of 3.13 psi. Axial tests were performed under guidelines, instrumentation and measurements from LCR&A. Maximum compressive loads were maintained for a period of two weeks to check the soil response under continuous loading.Lateral loads were not considerable and the test piles measured movements in the order of 1.1 in. under the maximum load of 13,000 lbs. An initial report containing construction guidelines for the reaction frame and instrumentation requirements was presented by LCR&A. The final report contained graphics of reduced measurements and the table of measured data.

Axial Load Test of Internally Instrumented Drilled Shaft in Serpentine Rock

350 Rhode Island Street, San Francisco, California
Dames & Moore; San Francisco, California
January 2000 to March 2000
The foundation for a multi-story building project was preliminarily designed with drilled shafts of large diameters supporting single-column loads. The site for the project was composed of soft layers of clayey soil underlained by layers of serpentine rock with various degrees of weathering. The serpentine rock is hard to categorize in mechanical properties due to the difficulty of sampling and testing. Rock samples indicated severely weathered and sheared serpentine in many locations and depths. The geotechnical designers believed necessary to perform a fully instrumented axial load test in order to determine the soil transfers that may be obtained in the serpentine rock.LCR&A was contracted to perform the load test, design, and install internal and external instrumentation, reduce test data, and to help during the process of data interpretation. Modern instruments, known as “strain bars” were designed, manufactured, and installed for the measurement of total stresses at different depths of the test shaft. An automated data acquisition system continuously monitored the progress of the load test and digital data was evaluated at every step of the test. The information gathered from the load test proved to be very valuable for the geotechnical engineers and for the owner.

Axial Load Tests of Retaining Wall

Port of Cristóbal, City of Colón, Panama
Dillon Construction, Inc.; Panama City, Panamá
June 1999 to July 1999
A large capacity “Liebherr LHM 400” crane was custom built for the container terminal wharf of Panama Ports Company in the Port of Cristóbal, city of Colón, at the Caribbean side of the Panama Canal. During operation, the crane sits on four outriggers designed to be placed in the concrete deck of Berth 9 directly above a row of piers on one side and above a retaining wall on the other side.The retaining wall also works as a spread footing and was placed on top of wooden piles. The structure was built around 1913 with various degrees of structural enhancements documented in the 80s. However, the axial capacity of the retaining wall could not be accurately computed with the amount of available information.The operation of the crane was thus limited to movements that would avoid overloading the retaining wall. Axial load tests at different location along the retaining wall were performed as proof tests of the existing foundation system. All tests were performed by Lymon C. Reese & Associates (LCR&A) under two separate contracts with Dillon Construction, Inc. (DCI). These tests are part of contracts between DCI and Panama Ports Company (PPC). The consulting engineers and field supervisors for PPC are Sir William Halcrow & Partners Ltd.Loading was applied with the help of the working crane while lifting a reference 40-Ton container and with maximum boom extensions. Load increments were obtained with prescribed variations of boom rotations. Precise information of loading and vertical movements were measured using calibrated load cells and digital extensometers connected to an automated data acquisition system.

Design and Execution of Lateral Load Tests of Drilled Shafts in Soft Limestone

Trading Post Electric Substation, Trading Post, Texas
Austin Electric
December 1998 to January 1999
Drilled shafts of 36-in. OD and 10.5-ft penetrations in soft limestone were tested under lateral loads. The drilled shafts consisted of foundation systems for components of an electric substation. A maximum lateral load of 186 kips was reached with deflections of up to 0.22 in. LCR&A was contracted to provide the design, construction, and instrumentation details for the load tests.

Design and Execution of Load Tests on GeoJet Piles for BART Station

BART Millbrae Station, Millbrae, California
Condon-Johnson & Associates, Inc.
November 1998
Proof tests for axial and lateral loading were requested by Sverdrup/Conco joint venture for the GeoJet foundation alternative on the Millbrae Station of the Bay Area Rapid Transit project near the San Francisco International Airport in California. Condon-Johnson & Associates, the foundation subcontractor supplying the GeoJet alternative, contracted LCR&A to design the GeoJet units, and to prepare, perform, and report the required testing.GeoJet units of 30-in. OD with 30-ft penetration were tested under axial compressive, axial tensile, and lateral loadings. Structural inserts for the GeoJet units consisted of 20-in and 16-in OD steel pipes with 0.375-in wall thickness. An axial movement of 0.9 in. was measured for the maximum loading of 400 kips in compression and 0.7 in. of upward movement was measured for 240 kips in tension. The maximum lateral load applied to the test piles was 80 kips, producing the maximum lateral movements of 1.4 in. and 4.2 in.

Load Tests of Drilled Shafts for Locks & Dam No.2, Monongahela River

Braddock, Pennsylvania
AWK Consulting Engineers, Inc., Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania
May 1998 to November 1998
A series of load tests were performed underwater at the site of a new gated dam to be constructed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Axial and lateral loading tests were performed on 72-inch drilled shafts in a siltstone with a compressive strength ranging from 50 to 300 psi, overlain by a granular alluvium. The dimensions of the excavations were measured prior to placement of concrete using a caliper system developed by LCR&A for the project. The concrete integrity was determined prior to load testing using cross-hole sonic loading and gamma density logging. Lateral loads up to 355 kips were applied in the lateral loading tests using an underwater loading system and axial capacities of over 6,700 kips were measured in the axial loading tests using Osterberg load cells. Instrumentation included load cells, vibrating wire strain gages on reinforcing steel, vibrating wire concrete embedment strain gages, in-place inclinometers, telltales, electro- level beam sensors, and shaft-head displacement gages. All instrumentation was monitored using dual-computer controlled data loggers monitoring over 140 gages.

Load Tests of Selected Beams in Existing Pier Foundation

Port of Cristóbal, City of Colón, Panama
Dillon Construction, Inc.; Panama City, Panamá
July 1998 to August 1998
Panama Ports Company, a division of Hutchison Ports Holding Group, was interested in upgrading to a larger-capacity container crane for their existing facilities in the Port of Cristóbal, within the city of Colón, Panamá. The original berths were built in the early 1910s and consisted of two layers of concrete slabs, riveted steel beams encased in concrete, and concrete-filled steel pipe shafts in the foundation.The owners contracted Dillon Construction Inc. (DCI) to perform a series of tests on several structural elements and soils at the site of their existing facility. DCI contracted LCR&A to design and perform load tests of the beam elements. A reaction frame was designed by LCR&A and built by DCI to support 80 tons of dead loads. Axial loading was simultaneously applied at four loading points in two beams to simulate the factored loading from the new crane that would provide the highest bending moments and shears on the existing beams. Vertical movements of the beams were measured with digital extensometers connected to an automated data acquisition system. Loads were measured with four independent load cells connected to the data acquisition system and with four independent calibrated hydraulic jacks.

Design and Execution of Load Test of GeoJet Piles in the San Francisco International Airport

Retention Structure, West Field Improvements, San Francisco International Airport, California
Kulchin-Condon & Associates, Inc.
August 1997
Deep foundation systems consisting of GeoJet piles are proposed to be installed at the subject site. Three GeoJet units of 30-in. OD were designed to be installed for testing with penetrations of 40, 45, and 50 feet. Three additional GeoJet units were designed at the corners of an equilateral triangle to function as reactions during loading of the test piles in tension and compression. The test piles were designed to be installed at on each leg of the triangle at the midpoints between the reaction piles. LCR&A was contracted to provide the design, construction, and instrumentation details for the load test of the GeoJet units.

Axial Load Tests of Steel Pipe Piles in Panama

General Cargo Pier; Chiriquí Grande, Panamá
Dillon Construction, Inc.
May 1996 to October 1996
Petroterminal de Panamá, a division of Northville Industries, invested on building a new pier for general cargo in the southern shore of the Laguna de Chiriquí, in the Atlantic Coast of Panama. Steel-pipe piles of large diameters were designed for the foundation of the pier. LCR&A engineers designed the reaction system for the required axial-load tests on two offshore piles. The reaction system was designed with drilled shafts, recoverable steel casings and high-strength DYWIDAG bars. The reaction beams and system were designed for maximum axial loads of 1,000 tons on 29-ft spans.Three full-scale tests for offshore piles under axial loads were instrumented and supervised by LCR&A. Detailed reports on the performance of the load tests were pre-sented by LCR&A. A maximum load of 843 tons was reached on a 29-ft span. Test piles were 42-in. o.d. steel pipes with 42-in. wall thickness driven close-ended to 131 ft and 123 ft below mean-water level.

Foundation Analysis and Load Tests of the Monongahela River Bridge

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Michael Baker, Jr., Inc.
May 1994 to September 1994
Prepared the analysis of groups of drilled shafts under lateral and axial loading for main river piers using appropriate reduction factors for closely-spaced shafts. Provided assistance in preparing construction specifications for drilled shafts. Developed the procedures and overall design for lateral load tests of drilled shafts in rock.

Load Tests and Analyses of Underpinning System Under Axial Loading

Centralia, Missouri
A. B. Chance Company
September 1993 to February 1994
Assisted the client engineers in the development of a method of analysis of an underpinning system. An existing computer program was modified to accept the complex boundary conditions at the top of the A. B. Chance anchors.

Study of Load Tests of Isolated Drilled Shafts in the Makkah Road Extension

Milwaukee, Wisconsin
R. I. Geotechnical, Inc.
May 1993
A study was carried out to determine the required penetration of drilled shafts below the cut line of a secant wall at the subject site. The drilled shafts for the secant wall were designed to be founded in rock. The lateral earth pressure was based on geotechnical reports and the analyses yielded the deflection and bending moment as a function of the height of the wall.

Load Tests on AugerJet Piles for Cypress Structure in California and Tidwell Road Expansion in Texas

Cypress Structure in California
Tidwell Road Expansion in Houston, Texas.
Client: Brown & Root; Houston, Texas
Dates: 1993The firm was invited to provide technical assistance for performing field tests under axial and lateral loading of a new type of deep foundation system. A total of 10 units were tested under the supervision of the associates. Test results were analyzed to develop design criteria for the installation of production piles using the new system. An investigation was undertaken to explain the improvement of the load-transfer mechanism produced by the soil-cement.

Review of the Capacity of Piles Under Axial & Lateral Loads for the Jamuna River Bridge

Review of Techniques of Construction for the Jamuna River Bridge
Location: Jamuna River Bridge, Bangladesh
Client: Ben C. Gerwick, Inc.; San Francisco, California
Dates: November 1992LCR&A was retained to be a special consultant for the evaluation of criteria for design and construction of deep foundations for this international, joint-development project. Large diameter (8 ft) steel piles were designed to be driven at specified depths. The drivability of the piles was investigated with different sizes of hammers. The effect of scouring in the vicinity of the pile, near the mudline, was also studied.

Load Tests on Drilled Shafts under Axial Loading for the Big Black River Bridge

Big Black River Bridge on I-20
Mississippi Department of Transportation; Vicksburg, Mississippi
November 1991
Associates of LCR&A conducted a loading test for the Mississippi Department of Transportation on fully instrumented drilled shafts which have the lower end socketed into two layers of sandstone. The test results were later analyzed to develop design criteria for the bridge foundations.

Load Tests on Drilled Shafts under Axial Loading on the I-49/I-20 Interchange

Analysis of the Data to Design Production Shafts for the I-49/I-20 Interchange
Project Location: I-49/I-20 Interchange, Route I-49, Louisiana
Client: Louisiana Department of Transportation; Caddo Parish, Louisiana
Dates: 1991Associates of LCR&A were retained by the Louisiana Department of Transportation to design a full-scale, instrumented-pile, loading test. The design parameters were derived based on the field measurement of 36-inch diameter test shafts and recommendations were submitted to Louisiana DOT for designing the production drilled shafts.

Initial Instrumentation System Design for the San Antonio “Y” Segmental Bridges in Texas

Elevated section of I-10 in downtown San Antonio, Texas
Texas Department of Transportation; Austin, Texas
1990 to 1991
An associate of LCR&A was directly involved with the initial design and testing of instrumentation systems for three adjacent spans of a segmental box-girder bridge being built in the downtown area of the city of San Antonio, Texas. Innovative instrumentation systems were developed for measuring span deflections and forces in external tendons. A battery-operated, multi-channel, automated data acquisition equipment was designed and tested for each instrumented span, to ensure the long-term reliability of the instrumentation system.

Load Tests on Drilled Shafts under Axial Loads for the U. S. 290 Interchange

Location: U. S. 290 Interchange with West Belt Toll Road, Houston, Texas
Houston Toll Road Authority; Houston, Texas
The subsurface soils have significant variability at the interchange of U.S. 290 and West Belt Toll Road in Houston, Texas. Associates of LCR&A worked with McClelland Engineers, Houston, Texas, in conducting tests on two fully-instrumented drilled shafts to develop the criteria for foundation design. Associates of LCR&A were also involved in the preparation for the loading tests, including the calibration for the instrumentation, supervision of the construction of the test shafts and the reaction shafts, and the actual conduction of the loading tests. After developing the design parameters for bearing capacity, the partners also cooperated with the structural design group from Bernard Johnson Inc., Houston, Texas, in the design of the drilled shafts for bridges located in the highway interchange.